Ergogenic aids in sports competition: amphetamines and caffeine.

1. Summary

This bibliographic review work main goal is to obtain information from different sources to be able to understand the relationship between aid ergogenic and physical activity.

A first approach has been made conceptual aid at the end of ergogenic aids, understanding what they consist of, the guys that exist and how these can help improve athletic performance. Specifically, in this caffeine and amphetamines are the substances it focuses on. Therefore each of them have been described and the effects both positives such as negatives that can take place in the agencies of the athletes who consume them, affecting them in their athletic performance different ways.

2. Introduction

The concept of ergogenic aid comes from the Greek ergon that translates as work. It is defined as help ergogenic to a procedure or use of substances that enable the improving athletic performance, as the individual will theoretically be able to perform more physical work that you could perform without using them. (Wootton, 1988). 

The use of ergogenic aids is intended to make the athlete able to perform above their capacities. This type of aid can seek to improve the use of metabolic energy and its efficient use. They can also allow an improvement in physical qualities such as speed, coordination… In turn, they enable the delay of fatigue, the improvement of recovery and the reduction of tremors, (McArdley and Cols.,1991).

3. Current view of the subject

3.1 Caffeine concept. Effects and risks.

Caffeine is a “drug” controlled or restricted” in the world of sport (T.Graham and L.Spriet, 1996) since most athletes who consume caffeine prior to competition usually do not reach illegal post-competition levels of 12og/mL. Therefore, caffeine occupies a unique place as an ergogenic aid juridico. Despite the common it is common to equate caffeine with coffee, it is necessary point out that it’s rare for coffee to be the means of administration in studies investigation. This is why it may be misleading to compare the two because the coffee contains hundreds of additional chemicals.

Caffeine appears to be taken by all the tissues in the body, which makes it difficult to study the effects of caffeine on the central nervous system, adipose tissue in the active human. It is also clear that different mechanisms are likely responsible for the improvement in performance in different types of exercise. However, it is important to have mechanism(s) may not be entirely due to the Caffeine. For example, caffeine consumption generally increases plasma concentration of epinephrine, a hormone that has effects and the liver quickly metabolizes caffeine, a trimethylxanthin, in three dimethylxanthines (paraxanthin, theophylline and theobromine). Concentrations of these metabolites increase in plasma while decreases caffeine concentration, and especially paraxanthin and theophylline are potential metabolic stimuli. So it’s hard resolve which tissues are directly or indirectly affected by which Component. Due to this uncertainty, when using the term “caffeine” in this report, the reader should keep in mind that it could be any of methylxanthenes. (Graham and Spriet, 1996).

The negative effects (Odriozola, 2000) of caffeine can be many, some of they have not yet been determined. Those that have been studied have been investigated and contrasted in many studies on the subject. These can be caused by an exaggerated intake or by a normal intake.

Excess caffeine can affect our nervousness (alert state, hand tremor and hyperactivity), can cause problems of diabetes and gastrointestinal problems.

Another effect from caffeine are disorders in the rates of sleep at night, the difficulty to fall asleep and go into deep sleep, so people who consume this substance for afternoon workouts should have special care with the dosage and knowing how it affects their own body. son irregular heartbeats are also common.

Considering (Kruger. A) the effects pharmacological disorders such as anxiety neurotic and distress crisis disorders.

      3.2 Amphetamine Concept. Effects and Risks.

Amphetamines and their derivatives are substances that stimulate the Nervous System (Figueroa, Thumm, Bustamante  and Morales ,2002). They are a type of drug that causes the release of neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous system. The mechanism of action of amphetamines relative to the Central Nervous System consists of the release of dopamine that causes psychomotor stimulation by activating your cerebral reward centers and the respiratory center. Regarding the Peripheral Nervous System, amphetamines facilitate the release of Norepinephrine. One of its features of norepinephrine (Naples, 2014) is that it induces increased tension increased systolic and diastolic pressures.

Amphetamines originate from 1887. Their first function was to use them as decongestants Nasal. During World War II, this type of substance began to be used in order to delay fatigue in soldiers in addition to increase alertness. Another reason why catecholamines were used to inhibit appetite. It was from the 1960s when they began to be used in high-end sport competition with the primary objective of improving athletic performance (Figueroa, Thumm, Bustamante and Morales ,2002).

The effects of amphetamines begin to appear within 30 minutes of taking them and can last up to three minutes Hours. They are usually administered orally but there is a the possibility of doing so by intravenous means. In the latter way the effects appear much faster (Gallego, Collado and Verdú, 2006).

According to Wilmore and Costill (2004) the benefits that can be associated with the use of amphetamines for athletes are that they cause a state of euphoria. It is believed that these drugs increase mental alertness and increase Concentration. In addition, athletes think that by consuming them their performance is going to be higher because of your sense of ability.

Athletes (Zurita, 2009) using this type of substance shows the following effects:

  • Reduction of the feeling of fatigue
  • Increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
  • Increase heart rate.
  • Redistribution blood flow to the skeletal muscles.
  • Increase glucose and free acids in the blood.
  • el intendente la intendenta muscle tension.

Other studies show that amphetamines have some ability to improve power, the ability to endurance, speed and physical motor coordination but they don’t show improvements in the aerobic capacity of athletes (Gallego, Collado and Verdú, 2006).

Amphetamines are considered substances that can cause the following  negative effects (Zurita, 2009):

  • Loss weight
  • Depression
  • Headache
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Growth of the mammary glands
  •  Euphoria
  • Tachycardia
  • Insomnia
  • Loss hair
  • Increase in the frequency of urinations
  • Changes in sexual desire
  • Impotence.

It is then evident that use of this type of substance can lead to very dangerous effects on human health such as as well as (Barbany, 2002) hyperexcitability, increased aggression, extras, a disarray in activity cardiac, a loss of reasoning and even death.

     Tom Simpson was one of the athletes who died due to the consumption of Amphetamines. She was the world champion in the running. During the Tour de France in 1967 suffered a cardiac arrest that resulted in his death because the amphetamines taken previously prevented the determination of their true fatigue threshold (Gallego, Collado and Verdú, 2006).

Amphetamines (Gallego, Collado Verdu, 2006) are substances that develop tolerance of very quickly. Tolerance takes place for some effects such as sleep delay, anorexia, reduced feelings of fatigue or Euphoria. As a result, their consumption doses are increased very harmful effects on the health of the athlete as it does not occur tolerance for those toxic effects affecting the Nervous System centrico.

Abuse of amphetamines can create psychological dependence and even lead to withdrawal syndrome caused by the suppression of these substances and that can cause sleep, tiredness, depressive syndrome and even hyperphagy.

Download the article in pdf:

4. Bibliography

Barbany, J. (2002). Exercise and exercise physiology Training. Barcelona: Paidotribo

Bernardot, Dan. (2006).  Advanced Sports Nutrition. United States: Human Kinetics.

Figueroa H.; Thumm, N.; Bustamante, S. and Morales, M.A. (2002) Drug abuse in sport: central nervous system stimulants. (academic work Catholic University of Maule). Retrieved December 8, 2017, from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Miguel_Morales7/publication/281450516_Abuso_de_farmacos_en_el_deporte_estimulantes_del_sistema_nervioso_central/links/5613a8b808aefd18348dc4fd.pdf

Galician J. G., Collado, P. S., & Verdú, J. M. (2006). Nutrition in sport: ergogenic aids and doping. Madrid: Ediciones Díaz de Santos.

Graham, T. and Spriet, L. (1996): Caffeine and exercise performance. Sports Science Exchange.Vol. 9, No. 1, 1-5.

Kruger A. (1997). Caffeine consumption in chronic psychiatric patients: effects and pharmacological mechanisms. Magazine Drug addiction.13 Retrieved December 9, 2017, http://www.cat-barcelona.com/app/webroot/uploads/rets/RET13_4.pdf

McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I and Katch, V. L. (1991). Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance.Philadelphia: Read & Febiger.

Naples, D. (2014). Usefulvasoactive drugs in obstetric patient in critical condition. Medisan, 18.7.

Odriozola J.m. (2000). Ergogenic aids in Sport. Arbor. 165,650. Retrieved December 9, 2017 from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1301398155/fulltextPDF/35EA92A551C14062PQ/1?accountid=17192 .

Wilmore, J.H. and Costill, D. L. (2004) Physiology of Effort and Sport. Barcelona:Paidotribo.

Wootton S. (1988): Nutrition and sport. Zaragoza: Editorial Acribia

Zurita Perez, Rebekah (2009). Effects of ergogenic aids on the body in related to athletic performance. Digital Magazine: Innovation and Educational Experiences.19. Retrieved December 8, 2017, from https://archivos.csif.es/archivos/andalucia/ensenanza/revistas/csicsif/revista/pdf/Numero_19/REBECA_ZURITA_PEREZ02.pdf

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *